Husayn Mcmahon Agreement

The agreement was never implemented. At the same conference, U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing asked Dr. Weizmann whether the Jewish National Home meant the establishment of an autonomous Jewish government. The head of the Zionist delegation had denied. Lansing was a member of the U.S. Peace Commission in Paris in 1919; He said that the system of mandates was a tool created by the great powers to hide their sharing of the spoils of war under the color of international law. If the territories had been ceded directly, the value of the former German and Ottoman territories would have been used to offset the Allies` claims for war reparations. He also stated that Jan Smuts was the author of the original concept. [p] The confusion resulted from a small sentence in the correspondence between McMahon and Hussein. Lands that “cannot be described as purely Arab” have been excluded from the deal – as far as the British are concerned. Hussein and many Arabs considered Palestine to be “purely Arab.” The British saw Palestine differently because the Turks, although masters of Palestine, had allowed other religious groups to Jerusalem – hence their belief that Palestine “cannot be called purely Arab.” Proponents of this interpretation also note that during the war, thousands of proclamations were abandoned in all parts of Palestine, containing a message from Sharif Hussein on one side and a message from the British command on the other, declaring “that an Anglo-Arab agreement has been reached to ensure the independence of the Arabs.” [s] The United Kingdom and France have agreed to recognize the provisional independence of Syria and Mesopotamia. Provisional recognition of Palestinian independence was not mentioned.

France had decided to govern Syria directly and had taken steps to enforce the French mandate for Syria before the terms were accepted by the Council of the League of Nations. The Frenchman intervened militarily in the Battle of Maysalun in June 1920, deposed the indigenous Arab government, and drove King Faisal out of Damascus in August 1920. [60] In Palestine, the UNITED Kingdom appointed a high commissioner and established its own mandatory regime. The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement of January 1919 was a short-lived agreement for Arab-Jewish cooperation in the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, which Faisal had mistakenly understood as part of the Arab kingdom. [m] Faisal addressed Palestine in his presentation to the June 6 Peace Conference. February 1919 and declared: “Palestine is left aside because of its universal character for the mutual consideration of all parties concerned.” [62] [63] In addition to disagreements within the letters themselves, conflicts of interest were reinforced by secret negotiations between Britain and France, which culminated in the Sykes-Picot Agreement in 1916, which effectively divided the entire Ottoman Empire between them, and later by the Balfour Declaration, which gained British support for the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. Hussein, however, apparently sufficiently convinced of British support, announced in June 1916 the beginning of the Arab revolt against the Ottomans. Although the revolt was relatively small, Arab forces, with British support, managed to dominate the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula, as well as Aqabah and Damascus. There was a lot of disagreement about whether this promise included Palestine.

The area promised to the Arabs in McMahon`s letter of October 1915 excluded only the area west of a line from Damascus to northern Aleppo. Palestine, far to the south, was implicitly included. The Arabic translation Hussein received showed that we are free to make these promises without regard for France. The British later denied that Palestine was included in the promise and refused to publish the correspondence until 1939. Following the publication of the Balfour Declaration of November 1917, a letter from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild, a wealthy and prominent leader of the British Jewish community who promised a national home for Jews in Palestine, and the subsequent leak of the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, in which Britain and France proposed dividing and occupying parts of the territory, Sharif and other Arab leaders believed that the agreements reached in the McMahon-Hussein correspondence had been violated. .